A turning machine, or lathe, removes material from a central piece of material by rotating it at very high speeds against a stationary cutting tool, which shaves material off the piece to create the desired part of product. Turning machines are best used to carve parts of products which are rounded, tubular, or cylindrical. The turning machine dates back all the way to Ancient Egyptians, and many consider it the original cutting machine.
Unlike turning machines, which move the workpiece around a stationary tool, milling machines remove material from the workpiece by fixing it in place and feeding it through a multi-point cutting tool. The milling cutter moves at incredibly high speeds stripping away material from the flat surfaces of the material, creating grooves, inclines or slots.
Grinding machines are a little self-explanatory. Grinding machines remove material by forcing the material to make contact with a rotating wheel coated in an abrasive material, similar to sandpaper. The wheel is usually referred to as a grinding wheel or an abrasive belt. Grinding machines are one of the most accurate types, as the material being ground away can be completed accurately to within 0.0025 millimetres.
Broaching machines remove material via the use of a toothed cutting tool, called a broach, which is applied to the stationary workpiece. As the broach rubs against the material, each tooth takes a shallow cut and carries a chip for ejection at the end of the part
A shaper uses a linear motion between a workpiece and an oscillating cutting tool that cuts a straight path. The material being shaped is automatically fed toward the tool during each stroke. The largest shaping machines can reach a part capacity of 36 inches long.
A planer machine is almost identical to a shaper in operation style, but a planer can be much larger. Planer machines can work much larger parts with a max capacity of 50 feet long!
A drilling machine is another that explains itself! Drilling machines remove material by using a rotating drill to bore holes in the metal.